Friday, May 31, 2019
Pakistan Foreign PolicyPakistan, a land of many an(prenominal) splendors and opportunities, a repository of a unique blend of history and culture for both the East and West has been the cradle of iodin of the oldest civilizations. The Indus valley, is the ninth most populous Area in the world, with 134 million tough, conscientious, hard working people wishing and strain hard to enter into the 21st century as equal partners in the community of the different developed nations. During the last 20 years Pakistans economy has been one of the fastest growing in the world-the seventh fastest in Asia (www.forisb.org/fpolicy).Pakistans economy has been becoming large on a worldwide scale, with the annual gross house servant product growing at more than six percent a year. It is now a member of the Economic Cooperation Organization, and the South Asian Association of regional Cooperation (www.forisb.org/fpolicy). Pakistan is strategically located in close proximity to the affluent Middle E ast. It is in position geographically to be a gateway of trade for many land-locked countries, such as Afghanistan and those of central Asia. It is also in proximity to the enormous East Asian Markets. The trade relations of Pakistan have been very diverse, for trade has been unfastened between them and countries in the Middle East as well as the Far East. The trade policy in Pakistan has been dramatically changed over the last hardly a(prenominal) years. One of the main policies for trade through Pakistan isin order to decrease man...
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Humorous Wedding Speech by a Friend of the Groom (Bridegroom)Good afternoon, Ladies and Gentlemen - My name is Charles. Ive tried to memorise this speech, but forgive me if I resort to my notes every five seconds. I did ask for an autocue to be set up in front of me, but apparently the wedding cipher doesnt stretch that far. And, unfortunately, neither does my eyesight. LaughterIve known Steven for 22 years now and weve had more good times than I can remember - and wed have had a one more if I hadnt run out of money in that strip cub on the other night. During this period, Ive seen Steven go through many a(prenominal) evolutionary changes to end up the man he is today. And in order to understand exactly what went wrong, we must start by examining his early goals in life. At school, Steven had two goals 1) To embolden for the school baseball (cricket) team which he did. In fact, his prowess was legendary and he single-handedly rewrote the school record books - shortest time at bat (in bat), most catches dropped and most unforced errors in a single game (wides bowled in an over). The list is endless. 2) To star in a school play and his first opportunity came with the schools major production of Snow White & the Seven Dwarfs, in which Steven was cast as one of the dwarfs. And very soon, he had made the part his own. From the outset, he personified his role day and night, living and breathing the essence of his character. And many say theyve never since seen a more virtuoso feat of Dopey. After leaving school, Stevens goal was to travel the world. But he only got as far as New Zealand, where we all new it would go him down to the ground. What with the sun, sea, surf and, of course, the biggest draw of them all the sheep. On his return, his goal was to land a job in a bank because they had the two things he want best money and holidays. But if it hadnt been for me it might never have happened. When applying for the job he asked me to give his application fo rm a quick at once over before he sent it off. It was a good thing he did. Where he was asked, Length of residence at present address, he had replied, virtually 20 meters not counting the garage.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Reproductive and Therapeutic CloningNew areas of science often get ahead questions ab out(p) safety. Reflecting back on the previous(prenominal) medical technologies invented, people have always opposed it but often benefit from it later on in life. The use of in-vitro fertilization, for instance, was once a controversial issue. Some people worried that society could discriminate against humans produced as a result of IVF and humans could cattle farm diseases. Furthermore, its usefulness cannot be predicted because it is just a research tool, and so on. Today, those worries and concerns have not manifested, but instead have brought joy and happiness to families. The people natural through IVF process are as happy and equal as any other average child. It is the same with cloning technology. Upon all that we have gained from away medical technology, a majority of people have failed to see that new medical breakthrough will become as beneficial as the past ones if it is al lowed to be researched. Cloning is a controversial issue because it is a new area of science and people are once again worried that, this technology will become a dangerous weapon to the society. Cloning is the creating of a genetically selfsame(a) copy of an original plant or animal by using biological materials such as DNA segment (e.g. a gene or other region). According to Wilmut, The copies produced through cloning have identical genetic makeup and are known as clones. Many organisms in nature reproduce by cloning (asexually). Scientists use cloning techniques in the research laboratory to create copies of cells or organisms with value traits. Their work aims to find practical applications for cloning that will produce advances in medicine, biological research, and industry.... ...ld pass a similar faithfulness and allow at least research, if not experimentation. Anxieties people have about cloning are similar to concerns about past medical technologies. This is als o real about technologies in general, for instance people questioned the importance and abilities of computers, etc. Some new areas of science in the past brought up apprehensions, these technologies turned out to be beneficial to mankind. Cloning technology is now a new area of science and people are concerned about the safety and morals base it. This system could become as stable as past medical technologies only if research is allowed. If laws are pass (with some restrictions) it could ensure that research is carried out without interfering with the principles of nature, ensures that everyone has equal access to the technology, and also used in serious cases not for pleasure.
In this essay I will look at the strengths and weaknesses of using the Boston Matrix to help make decisions in business. I will first briefly explain the Boston Matrix and then break up its effectiveness as an aid to making a marting strategy.Like Ansoffs matrix, the Boston Matrix is a well known tool for marketingmanagers. It was develop by the large US consulting group and is a way that a business can compare all of its products. The two aspects it looks at are market share (relative to that of competitors) and market growth. To use it you would look at all of your products and sort them into 4 categories, stars (products with a high market growth and a high market share), cash cows (high market share in a market with little growth), occupation children/question marks (low market share in a growing market) and dogs (low market share in a market with no growth). There needs to be an equilibrium of the different types in your product portfolio. neer have any dogs, but crusade a nd keep the same amount of the other 3 types. This means that funds can be evenly distributed among the 3, money generated from cash cows needs to be spent turning problem children into stars, which will eventually become cash cows, and the cycle continues. Some problem children will become dogs, and money from cash cows may also have to be spent compensating for these failures.The Boston Matrix is commonly used to try and help plan the future of a company as well as simply categorising products. Bu...
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109) board of Contents (Clicking on the links below will take you to that furcate of this article)* Life* Philosophical Writings* TheologyLifeThe father of medieval scholasticism and one of the most eminent of English prelates was born at Aost Piedmont in 1033. Anselm died at Canterbury, England on April 21, 1109. While a boy he wished to be a monk, but his father forbade it. When he was about twenty-three Anselm left national to live in Burgundy and France. After three years he went to Bec in Normandy where his celebrated countryman, Lanfranc, was former. Here he became a monk (1060). He succeeded Lanfranc as prior in 1063, and became abbot in 1078. The abbey had possessions in England, which called Anselm frequently to that country. He was the general choice for archbishop of Canterbury when Lanfranc died (1089). However, the king, William Rufus, preferred to keep the office vacant, and apply its revenues to his own use. In 1093 William cast off ill and, literally forced Anselm to receive an appointment at his hands. He was consecrated December 4 of that year. The next four years witnessed a constant struggle between king and archbishop over money matters, rights, and privileges. Anselm wished to carry his case to Rome, and in 1097, with much difficulty, obtained permission from the king to go. At Rome he was honour and flattered, but he obtained little practical help in his struggle with the king. He returned to England as soon is he heard of the death of William in 1100. that a difficulty arose over lay investiture and homage from clerics for their benefices. Thought a mild and meek man, Anselm had adopted the Gregorian views of the relation between church and State, and adhered to them with the steadiness of conscientious conviction. The king, though inclined to be conciliatory, was equally firm from motives of self-interest. He had a high regard for Anselm, always treated him with much consideration, and individualise d relations between them were generally friendly. Nevertheless there was much vexatious disputing, several fruitless embassies were sent to Rome, and Anselm himself went thither in 1103, remaining abroad boulder clay 1106. His quarrel with the king was settled by compromise in 1107 and the brief remaining period of his life was peaceful. He was canonized in 1494.Back to Table of ContentsPhilosophical WritingsAs a metaphysician Anselm was a realist, and one of his earliest works, De fide Trinitatis, was an attack on the doctrine of the Trinity as expounded by the nominalist Roscelin.
Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109)Table of Contents (Clicking on the links below will take you to that part of this article)* Life* Philosophical Writings* TheologyLifeThe breed of medieval scholasticism and one of the most eminent of English prelates was born at Aost Piedmont in 1033. Anselm died at Canterbury, England on April 21, 1109. While a boy he wished to be a monk, but his father forbade it. When he was about twenty-three Anselm left home to live in Burgundy and France. After three years he went to Bec in Normandy where his celebrated countryman, Lanfranc, was prior. Here he became a monk (1060). He succeeded Lanfranc as prior in 1063, and became abbot in 1078. The abbey had possessions in England, which called Anselm frequently to that country. He was the general choice for archbishop of Canterbury when Lanfranc died (1089). However, the king, William Rufus, preferred to keep the office vacant, and apply its revenues to his own use. In 1093 William fell ill and, literally f orced Anselm to receive an appointment at his hands. He was consecrated December 4 of that year. The next four years witnessed a continual struggle between king and archbishop over money matters, rights, and privileges. Anselm wished to exonerate his case to Rome, and in 1097, with very much difficulty, obtained permission from the king to go. At Rome he was honored and flattered, but he obtained little practical help in his struggle with the king. He returned to England as soon is he heard of the death of William in 1100. But a difficulty arose over lay investiture and tribunal from clerics for their benefices. Thought a mild and meek man, Anselm had adopted the Gregorian views of the relation between Church and State, and adhered to them with the steadiness of conscientious conviction. The king, though inclined to be conciliatory, was every bit firm from motives of self-interest. He had a high regard for Anselm, always treated him with much consideration, and personal relations between them were generally friendly. Nevertheless there was much vexatious disputing, several fruitless embassies were sent to Rome, and Anselm himself went thither in 1103, remaining abroad till 1106. His quarrel with the king was settled by compromise in 1107 and the brief remaining period of his life was peaceful. He was canonized in 1494.Back to Table of ContentsPhilosophical WritingsAs a metaphysician Anselm was a realist, and one of his earliest works, De fide Trinitatis, was an attack on the doctrine of the Trinity as expounded by the nominalist Roscelin.
Monday, May 27, 2019
The scope of the project is to develop a web based finishing for rock-steady Pharmaceutical Service to ease the existing system for its employees. The new web based application should be user friendly and should be hosted at the headquarters of Reliable Pharmaceutical Service. The existing data Reliable Pharmaceutical Service should be moved into the new web based application. Before the lay out of the growing activities of the web based application, the activities like effort estimation, risk identification, budget allocation, resource identification etc should be completed to ensure hassle free development of the project. The effort estimation should be done very precisely to ensure the timely completion of the project.The testing of the web based application plays an important authority in the successful project delivery therefore the software should be extensively tested so avoid any hiccups in the future. There pass on be several defects that may be identified during the te sting phase. The resolution of all such defects is also in the scope of this project. The existing losses of Reliable Pharmaceutical Service are due to the complex system on which the whole company relies upon. The new web based application should work in such a way that Reliable Pharmaceutical Service should start making profits once again.The web based application so developed should be such that the widespread network of Reliable Pharmaceutical Service should be precisely united. The business that is being carried forward with the existing old technologies should be completely replaced with the new web technology without any loss of data.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
education is the topmost priority of the government of Pakistan Awami Tehreek. The literacy rate give be raised through mature education movement and by imparting formal and informal education within a period of 10 years through a immense educational revolution. The first priority of the manifesto of Pakistan Awami Tehreek is education for all (EFA).The literacy rate give be raised up to 90% in the next 10 years.The educational system from the initial stage to the level of university will be changed in the next 10 years by enforcing the modern and developed educational system.In keeping with the new educational policy the teachers will be trained in order to enhance their competence to meet the demands of new trends in education.The educational activities based upon thinking and understanding will be started systematically from early education and primary level.The basic knowledge of ideology of Pakistan and Islamic studies will be incorporated in the curriculum at every level.T he educational institutions and curriculum will be purged of every kind of sectarian, regional, linguistic and sectional biases and hatred.For the powerful implementation of educational reforms educational devolution scheme will be enforced in the department of education.Efforts do for the spread of education in the underground sector will be encouraged at every level.Information technology will be promoted at economic, educational and industrial levels.The proposed reforms will withal be implemented in the seminaries to integrate them in the discipline mainstream.Respect for human rights, rule of law and philanthropist behaviour will be do part of the curriculum of every level.Primary education confirmation card (PECC) for children will be issued throughout the rude.The number of the students will not be allowed to fall by 30. For this purpose the double cant system will be started in the schools so that the students are able to get maximum individual tending of the teac hers.A special educational fund will be set up for the higher education of the helpless and needy students. Traders, industrialists, rich citizens and people with earnest economic standing will contribute to this fund on the basis of proportion of their income.Our government will impose educational emergency throughout dry land to achieve 90% literacy rate under 10-year educational plan. According to this plan, new educational institutions of every level will come into being and double transmute system will be introduced in the existing schools. Thus the number of educational institutions will double through the introduction of this system.A National development Force comprising of the jobless educated youth will be established for the availability of educational staff, which will organize efforts for the achievement of 90% literacy rate.All Pakistani schools, colleges, universities and research centers will be linked to the theme industrial enterprises so that the theoretical a nd practical knowledge is harmonized.Volunteer scholarship schemes would be launched at national level for the education of the c PAT on FBEducation is the topmost priority of the government of Pakistan Awami Tehreek. The literacy rate will be raised through magnanimous education movement and by imparting formal and informal education within a period of 10 years through a bang-up educational revolution. The first priority of the manifesto of Pakistan Awami Tehreek is education for all (EFA).The literacy rate will be raised up to 90% in the next 10 years.The educational system from the initial stage to the level of university will be changed in the next 10 years by enforcing the modern and developed educational system.In keeping with the new educational policy the teachers will be trained in order to enhance their competence to meet the demands of new trends in education.The educational activities based upon thinking and understanding will be started systematically from early educa tion and primary level.The basic knowledge of ideology of Pakistan and Islamic studies will be incorporated in the curriculum at every level.The educational institutions and curriculum will be purged of every kind of sectarian, regional, linguistic and sectional biases and hatred.For the impelling implementation of educational reforms educational devolution scheme will be enforced in the department of education.Efforts made for the spread of education in the secret sector will be encouraged at every level.Information technology will be promoted at economic, educational and industrial levels.The proposed reforms will also be implemented in the seminaries to integrate them in the national mainstream.Respect for human rights, rule of law and philanthropist behaviour will be made part of the curriculum of every level.Primary education confirmation card (PECC) for children will be issued throughout the country.The number of the students will not be allowed to put across by 30. For thi s purpose the double shift system will be started in the schools so that the students are able to get maximum individual management of the teachers.A special educational fund will be set up for the higher education of the helpless and needy students. Traders, industrialists, rich citizens and people with legal economic standing will contribute to this fund on the basis of proportion of their income.Our government will impose educational emergency throughout country to achieve 90% literacy rate under 10-year educational plan. According to this plan, new educational institutions of every level will come into being and double shift system will be introduced in the existing schools. Thus the number of educational institutions will double through the introduction of this system.A National Education Force comprising of the jobless educated youth will be established for the availability of educational staff, which will organize efforts for the achievement of 90% literacy rate.All Pakista ni schools, colleges, universities and research centers will be linked to the national industrial enterprises so that the theoretical and practical knowledge is harmonized.Volunteer scholarship schemes would be launched at national level for the education.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
Forms are defined as the objects or things we believe to see in which are not physically there, but in the form in which they are perceived. These Forms described in Plats hypothesis are only intellectually comprehended not physically. To Plato, zippo that is physical can be Perfect, perfect only exists in possible action. But these Forms are not Ideas, simply because these forms existed before anyone was around to imagine these things.There were always things in shapes, or dutiful things, or quantities of things before there were people having ideas or giving names to these things. Plato was aware of the physical sense of things, but believed they had a lesser reality because they can always approximate their form and are always to some extent flawed. Aristotle on the other hand, disagreed with Plato on his theory of forms because he believed Plats theory to be meaningless. Aristotle argument against Plato Is referred to as the Third man Argument.Aristotle believed that if everyt hing is un attached by some type of outside form that relates everything together, there must be some other form connecting that form with the first form and so on. He viewed the forms as Universals-Something that more than one Individual can be. Saying that something can be connected to more than one thing, so circularity, beauty, largeness and greenness are spokespersons of universals because more than one thing can be circular, beautiful, large or green. So people, or animals or plants are not universals they are particulars because only one thing can be these things.I agree with Aristotle on his Idea of proving Plato wrong with universals and particulars. I forecast that these forms cannot Just end with one thing In common, that more than one adjective can be described per object. If something Is circular and that Is what Is In common, say the ideal are coins, they can also be silver, ridged, small, large, heavy, light, there are many ways of describing an object and their forms would be never ending. Plats theory of Forms By landlubbers he believed Plats theory to be meaningless.Aristotle argument against Plato is forms as Universals-something that more than one individual can be. Saying that I agree with Aristotle on his idea of proving Plato wrong with universals and particulars. I think that these forms cannot Just end with one thing in common, that more than one adjective can be described per object. If something is circular and that is what is in common, say the example are coins, they can also be silver, ridged, small, large, heavy, light, there are many ways of describing an object and their forms
Friday, May 24, 2019
You are the teacher of a 5th grade class. Two students finished their assignment early, ane student arrived late, and one student is not attempting the assignment. Being able to have the skills to travel byle situations like this takes pr good turnice and experience. The skills that are required are the ones that complete Jacob Kounins Classroom Management Model, Lesson Movement. Kounins theory on classroom management was the first to integrate instructional and disciplinary aspects of the classroom.The basis of the model is for teachers to be organized, prepared, and aim proactive behavioral management combined with high student involvement with the goal of leading to a much effective classroom while minimizing disruptive behavior. Kounin coins his theory as Lesson Movement, comprised of techniques called withitness, overlapping, momentum, eloquence, and group focus (Classroom Management Theorist and Theories/Jacob Kounin, 2009). Withitness is the ability of a teacher to know everything that is going on in his/her classroom at all times to prevent discipline problems before they occurred.However, as important as it is for teachers to achieve this skill, it is just as important for students to believe they their teacher is withit. Students will still act disruptively if they feel the teacher does not notice them. Some ways that teachers can display this technique are consistently suppress misbehaviors of exactly those students who began the problem dealing with the more serious of two discipline problems occurring simultaneously and decisively handling off-task behavior before it gets out of hand or imitated by other students(Whom are We Talking About Jacob Kounin, 2008).Similar to withitness, overlapping involves the ability to attend to multiple classroom events at one time, and avoiding fixating on one event at the expense of all other classroom activities. For example, if a teacher is conducting small group assignments, and a pair is off task, a tea cher may address them from a distance while still conducting the activity. (The Kounin Model, 2008). Momentum is keeping the lesson moving briskly, requiring the teacher to aim effectively to avoid leaden downs.Kounin believes that teachers should not lecture for a long period of time to grant students to gain knowledge by moving around and maximizing their allotted time. By minimizing delays and interruptions, causes students will not lose interest and misbehave. (Charles, 1989). In conjunction with momentum is smoothness. While lecturing, a teacher must maintain direction and not fluff off on tangents, be diverted with irrelevant questions and information or fall victim to flip flops, dangles, or truncation.Otherwise, students will be confused and act out from loss of interest. (Classroom Management Theorist and Theories/Jacob Kounin, 2009) Lastly, Kounin refers to group focus as the ability to engage the whole class. Some techniques he offers are mental synthesis suspense or ask community questions Though community questions may appear random, it draws the groups attention and intrigue. The teacher must incorporate procedures to mete out multiple situations at once to maintain group focus.For example, if a student completes an assignment early, he/she must have a back up plan such as providing another assignment or enrichment activity while he/she helps other students that are struggling (Classroom Management Theorist and Theories/Jacob Kounin, 2009). Kounins Model of Classroom Management is an important topic for teachers today, because it is one of the most difficult skills to acquire. Student-centered classrooms and discovery lessons are becoming much more popular in our classrooms, leading to a more active learning environment.Being able to handle multiple situations at once, keeping students engaged, maintaining momentum and smoothness in your lessons and transitions takes experience. These are the most difficult techniques for a first year teach er to learn therefore, making them a habit during that year will allow for mastery of these skills to occur. I believe that Kounins Model is important to develop an effective classroom environment however, discipline problems will occur, no matter the center of preventive planning a teacher makes.Kounin does not address his procedures for disciplining, if he would or would not discipline children differently, nor does he address misbehaving as a solution to some factor that is outside of the teachers control. As a teacher, I would incorporate Kounins theory in my teaching planning and practices, though remembering that each student may require different accommodations. References Charles, C. M. (1989) Building Classroom discipline from models to practice. New York City, New York Longmans Inc.. Teacher Matters, (2008).The Kounin Model. Retrieved May 31, 2009 Teacher Matters http//www. teachermatters. com/index. php? preference=com_content&view=article&id=9kounin-model&catid=4model s-of-discipline&Itemid=4 WikiBooks, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (2009).Overview/History of Jacob Kounins Work. Retrieved May 28, 2009, from http//en. wikibooks. org/wiki/Classroom_Management_Theorist_and_Theories/Jacob_Kounin WikiEd. (2008). Whom are we talking about Jacob Kounin. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http//wik. ed. uiuc. edu/index. php/Kounin,_Jacob.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
In James Joyces short story Araby, the nameless, first person main character states at the end, Gazing up into the darkness I saw myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity and my eyes burned with anguish and anger (Joyce, summon ? ). He reaches this insight only after allowing the object of his desire, Mangans sister, to overtake his dreams, his thoughts, and his entire life, describing much(prenominal) sentiments as seeing the soft rope of her hair tossed from cheek to side (Joyce, page ? ) to the night he speaks with her about the Araby festival in the light from the porch which caught the white border of a petticoat, just visible (Joyce, page ? ).By the time he finally reaches the bazaar and finds it closing up for the night, he realizes that his quest to please the girl is not only irrational, but has caused him to forsake things such as his education, describing it as ugly monotonous childs play (Joyce, page ? ). He had no care for his uncle, worrying only that the un cle would be in home in time so he could attend the festival.The narrator experiences such a let down when he arrives at Araby that a choppy truth emerges he is not able to please Mangans sister and to allow this desire to overrun his life is both pointless and an exercise in vanity. In this respect, the narrator of Araby is much like Sammy in John Updikes A&P. Sammy, too, begins the story by relating his interest in Queenie, the bikini-clad girl who is obtain in the A&P grocery store where he works. After Sammy witnesses the other patrons shock and his bosss rudeness, he is resolute to stand up for the girl and her friends in the hope she will notice his bravery.In the end, however, the girls are long gone by the time Sammy quits his agate line and leaves the store. Sammy, much like the narrator in Araby, realizes his desire should not be the deciding force in his life, but rather it is his own convictions and beliefs which should dictate his behavior, find how hard the world was going to be to me hereafter (Updike, 36). A key difference between the two main characters is the level of their devotion. The narrator in Araby needs exhibits a more distant, but more deep, level of emotion for the object of his desire, based on the time period and setting of the story.Because he is less worldly, he does not imagine anything more tantalizing than what her hair feels like or what her knees might look like beneath her petticoat. Sammy, on the other hand, is more hungry(predicate) of seeing a lot more flesh and less interested in behaving romantically. Again, this is certainly due to the difference in years between the stories as well as the acceptable society norms of their respective time periods, but it also illustrates how much deeper a more innocent love can be.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
Another source of competition is how an neverthelesst may have to source come in its resources through sponsorship this means that the event will be commercializeed to potential sponsors that will believe that the event will create a significant leverage to the companions own marketing initiative. Hence, it is also important to stress to the potential sponsors the benefits of the event.This is discussed by Mack in which the author pointed out that (25) sponsorship allows organizations to reach their target market with less clutter than other communications methods, exposes the product/service directly to the market, and provides an excellent mechanism for the organization to give back to the community by which it is supported. offspring sponsorship, or sponsorship marketing, refers to supporting various types of event ..Whether the type of sponsorship is financial, media, or in-kind support (Cicora 1991), the list of company benefits derived from it can range from publicity, to product sales, image enhancement, or even improved employee morale (Decker 1991). In addition to getting sponsors, companies that are about to hold an event should also take into consideration its capabilities (Silvers). These include the ability to hairgrip the demands of the event and the ability to have the resources.It is also important to have the ability to know how to handle different events for instance, a bar that may be keeping a fundraising concert may be faced with different challenges if organising a battle-of-the-bands. As Silvers pointed, although the core processes of these two events are the same, it should be noted that one of the important elements in events management is the ability to handle the differences in the requirements of different events.All in all, the events management concept can be considered as an important marketing activity in which an establishment or company is able to communicate certain initiatives to the public (Soares). Hence, events s erve as an attractor especially if the company utilises popular channels such as concerts, dance events and exhibits,among others these venues fulfil the curiosity, the wants and needs of the muckle which is why events continue to be patronised throughout time. Many enterprises venture into the nightlife arena by means of establishing bars and clubs.As Chatterton and Hollands discussed, the demand for these establishments is that these have been a part of the urban landscape there is always the market among the youth, specifically the young professionals, who are in search for the latest cool, chic, fashionable bar or club (3). Because of this, it can be said that there is business in this industry, especially with the continuous influence of the entertainment and leisure sector. The nightlife scene which comprises of establishments such as bars and clubs can be also said to contri scarcee to the local anaesthetic tourism initiatives (Chatteron & Holland).The success of any bar or club requires a significant understanding of the business especially in the aspect of strategy. Lawson provides many guidelines in the success of any club or bar including a good understanding on food service operations (which is a fundamental in any bar or club), the facilities, the design, the themes, and last but not the least, the business aspects. Lawson therefore emphasised the business framework of these bars and clubs which are heavy in the marketing practice this is because this is a means for companies to get customers into the establishment.Bars and clubs, therefore, do not just have to excel in the food service operations but also in its ability to add value to its basic concept, and that is, to add event concepts to its entire operations. This is further attested by Smith in which the author mentioned that in order for bars and clubs to succeed, it needs to continuously come up with something interesting hence, in addition to food and drinks and the regular dance ba g or in-house performer, it is the specific events that make these bars and clubs special.This is therefore a part not only in the marketing aspect of the bar and club but also these events help the customers to identify what else they can do in the establishment, or at least, have something to look forward to (Smith, 75). Brown and Miron also mentioned the role of events in the success of any bar or nughtclub these fall in the aspect of marketing and advertising. When an event takes place, the tendency is that the event is supposed to pull more people into the establishment. Hence, events help in the increase in sales and to make the club and bar more memorable to the consumers.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
It was non entrepreneurial floor further the account that contained entrepreneurs. The end point foremost appe ard in the Hagiographas of Richard Cantillon in 1755 who used the term to depict person who exercises have-to doe with popular opinion in the face of uncertainness .John Sawyer argued entrepreneurship as the strictly move to the strictly customary non merely in the clientele b atomic number 18ly in other organisations where outstanding determinations affecting revisal argon do impacting the combinations and committedness of resources under conditions of uncertainness .Some common theories of entrepreneurship proposed enterprisers provided the indispensable drive force that powered capitalist stinting growing, others proposed it as a signifier of art more than its sparing bodily process and as such hard as any other artistic activity to explicate in footings of beginning, manner or environmental find out. Since so many an(prenominal) antithetical sig nifi squirtces had been assigned some writers wondered whether bookmans should non fling the term enterpriser .Entrepreneurship non merely touches upon history and economical sciences, but any tracks countries such as sociology, anthropology, psychological science and many more, some common premises were enterprisers were merely palmy bourgeois, his success was proof plenty of his abilities, his motives were obvious rack prosperity, public acknowledgment and regard, the public assistance of the society and there were some who related the single concern executive to the direction of the house.But as more energy was spent on this widely characterized term many inquiries like how does an enterpriser gets in to concern or what kind of sight tend to be attracted towards the entrepreneurial run short come up, the fact was that in covering with enterprisers we were covering with valet existences non spaces or joint economic units. Despite the potency for profusion and texture th at such a diverse mix of subjects brings a major failing was research workers from one field have tended to disregard the entrepreneurship surveies by research workers in other subject. ( Wortman 1992 ) 1 No by and large accepted theory of entrepreneurship has emerged so far but on the other side with such diverse positions each can assist us to witness assorted facets of entrepreneurship, yet definitions remain of import because they make farther research manageable.This supposed deficiency of read theory turned out to be one of the first issues seized by economic experts when they invaded in to the history of economic science. Since the term has been used for more than a century in the Fieldss of commercialism, media and by ordinary people in conversation so it is improbable an wholly brisk definition would be acceptable.Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship is a move around of test and mistake, there is no cutoff to success Richard A BendisCEO Innovation PhiladelphiaThe term ent repreneurship and enterpriser are used interchangeably. Entrepreneur ever precedes entrepreneurship. The result of discipline and co-ordination of maps of enterpriser is termed as entrepreneurship.Webster Third raw(a) International Dictionary ( 1961 ) 2 defines the enterpriser as an organiser of an economic venture, particularly one who organizes, owns, manages and assumes the bet on of a concern and Wagnalls standard Dictionary 3 ( 1958 ) offers One who undertakes to get down and carry on an enterprise or concern, presuming full control and hazard .The enterpriser is non defined by the formal rank or rubric but retrospectively after successful pattern of pattern. A originative individual in the literary, artistic or dramatic sense is non needfully an enterpriser but the 1 who recognizes the value of his cerebrations and exploits them differently than the remainder.Some primary requirements for the entrepreneurial clime 4 license to set an thought in to consequence if t he resources can be procured, capable merely to the Torahs of orderly society.Freedom to bask the fruits of success or the penalty of failure.Freedom from interjection by the authorities of its autonomous power to promote an endeavor.Entrepreneurship pees extra entrepreneurial activities, like the trigger of computing machines opened up a long computing machine package market. A concern of any sort generates the demand for 1000s of new concerns impacting growing of society. Entrepreneurship makes an of import part to the economic development by supplying a platform for the pool of cognition that otherwise would hold remained trapped.The kernel of entrepreneurship is the induction of alteration and one time this alteration is initiated direction takes charge of the output signal and distribution. Like developing a human intelligent computing machine requires an advanced alteration affecting entrepreneurship but one time the production begins, the direction takes over and organize s a model for its go oning production. The enterpriser is the alteration agent, the beginning of invention but still it remains a partially charted universe and can non be to the full defined.Entrepreneur as an trailblazer and strategianEntrepreneurship is a originative force, person who can believe otherwise and make new chances. Society s primary involvement in entrepreneurship seems do new possibilities that improve our economic life. Entrepreneur is considered as a beginning of alteration in society and the economic system.Strategic regulations of behavior are ground on thoughts to hold a competitory border at bottom a set of market constructions, hence travail is optimising within given boundaries conducted through thorough analysis by mechanistic system and model to tush up a brimming thought.Gartner ( 1988 ) 5 suggests that entrepreneurship is to make with making new concern ventures, irrespective of whether they are high growing oriented or non.The focal point is upon looking at the procedure of making the organisation instead than on the single individual .The activity of entrepreneurship is about taking hazard at the same clip enterprise in chase of benefit income, the basic trial for an enterpriser would be whether his thought provide function its full intent and if he is able to do money ( net income ) out of it. A good refined enterpriser is really careful to cipher the hazard they take, they stimulate both originative and direction discoverments and these accomplishments differentiate them from discoverers, directors and authorities decision makers.Schumpter 6 in 1995 argued that the inventions made by the enterprisers are the strategic factors in economic development and a conducive factor in trade. He made a clear and strong differentiation between innovation and invention. machination is an act of making an thought or vision whereas Innovation is doing usage of innovation to do new things or to do things otherwise. craft is associ ated with research, development, presentation and commercialisation. Innovation is a important factor for run intoing the altering demands of the society. It is about making something different from the herd and in making so analysing both production and market invention.In a salve environment there is a leaning for detecting chances and therefore spread outing them to profitable ventures. The organism of a association football field does non warrants soccer games in the same manner being of well-disposed conditions forget non itself create entrepreneurial activity. Fritz Machlup 7 depict this state of affairs as the birthrate of freedom .IllustrationThe successful international concatenation Body Shop international started out in 1970 as a individual store in a little Southern English town merchandising cosmetics and related merchandises based on natural ingredients. Anita Roddick the laminitis had an thought which see implemented with a individual store in the beginning and s ubsequently with her concern experience, development and commercialisation it grew internationally.Post Second World War there has been burgeoning growing in the activities affecting Science and Technology. Yet within the past few old ages at that place has been important paradigm displacement from procedure of making new scientific and expert progresss towards greater accent on effectual use of finds and development.The difference between innovation and invention has been attributed to the function of open who is responsible for interlingual rendition of scientific discipline and engineering in to common twenty-four hours usage. 8 Invention can be farther categorized as evolutionary and radical inventions. Generally inventions happening within a house, doing a steady house with accommodation to little alterations is referred to as evolutionary alterations. Evolutionary invention progress over clip, leting houses to follow improved methods and remain competitory. They occur freque ntly and are a procedure of alteration in virtually all major industries. Fuel efficient transmittals, electronic ignition in the car intentness are illustrations of evolutionary alterations.On the other manus Revolutionary inventions are non parting of the normal procedure and are a beginning of major alteration within a organisation. These inventions create new industries, have major turbulences within the bing industry and do some industries obsolete taking them to consequence of failure.Most common illustration of radical invention is the development and realignment of computing machines rise of automotive industry is besides an radical invention.Bridging of these two inventions is of import for houses to remain competitory as the coming of the two creates major turbulences across many industries, if houses are accommodating to alterations through evolutionary alteration it thereby opens a huge chance of radical inventions doing current methodological analysis obsolete.Entre preneurship and Economic DevelopmentSocieties differ in their capacity to accomplish economic growing. Small over two centuries ago there was small difference in the economic well-being of the bulk of the World s population but as the passage towards industrial renewing was made the economic growing rate began to increase. Significantly the degree of per capita income and the criterion of life improved. Entrepreneurship has been regarded as the important factor in the procedure of economic growing and development, as the economic growing and development occurs the conditions prefering entrepreneurship besides improves. It is non possible to hold development without growing, hence neglecting to understand entrepreneurship is neglecting to acknowledge the policies of turning economic system.Nelson and Winter ( 1982 ) 9 and Winter ( 1984 ) 10 suggested that more diverseness would be generated under the entrepreneurial government than the routinized government, Under the routinized te chnological government invention will be given to be less diverse and in demarcation line under the entrepreneurial government invention is characterized by more diverseness. Therefore in decision opportunities of new endeavors to be started should be associated with greater grade of diverseness.Economic growing and entrepreneurship are likely to boom in favourable economic conditions, if the economic conditions are favourable so given the maximal use of an thought, entrepreneurship will emerge and ensue will be the economic development. On the contrary if the conditions are non favourable entrepreneurship will non lift thereby stagnating the economic system. Entrepreneurship is a dependent entity it acts as the accelerator supplying flicker for the economic growing. Entrepreneurship has become a critical policy issue particularly for the developing economic systems as, foremost as it helps in making self employment which provides flexibleness and productiveness to the economic s ystem. Second the rise of advanced entrepreneurship is a tool to stay competitory and for other occupation creative activities.Capital which entrepreneurs generates exerts an upward influence through increased competition via increased figure of houses, non merely more figure of houses provide greater competition for new thoughts instead facilitates opening of new concerns with different thoughts thereby increasing the growing and development of the economic system. Therefore this in a manner indicates parts with high sum of entrepreneurial activity are likely to hold broad concern diverseness which consequences in higher rates of economic growing. In a development or a developed economic system opportunities of new endeavors to be started should be associated with greater grade of diverseness.Entrepreneurship and its relation with EngineeringAs enterprisers fill the nothingness between dependable progresss and economic sciences so hence for human sort to derive benefits from techn ology developments, enterprisers must acknowledge the value of economic sciences in the technological promotion and assist create concern ventures for social-economic stableness.Technology is of import, one manner to construct a concern around capablenesss that others can non copy, but itself engineering remains uncomplete, so an enterpriser s primary(prenominal) occupation is to happen the concern value that engineering can make and happen a way to change over that into a concern. So understanding of the two can non be ignored.Sony Walkman was the portable record participant which came in to being after the technology expertness to the full understood the related proficient issues, one time this merchandise was available tonss of other houses took this chance to make full the spreads in this appear market with their ain participants or to widen this thought from tape recording equipment to cd participant. Hence a small technological promotion with entrepreneurial accomplishments can be seen to play a specific function in the economic stableness.Biblography
Monday, May 20, 2019
Accidents bring about pop drop dead however c beful you drivel out put on the line assessments and supervise youngsterren. That is why it is recommended that practiti mavinrs constrict a drivele incite course. in that location has to be at least one outset-yearly aider present at each(prenominal)(prenominal) registe wild settings. The aims of first aid be often remembered as the three ps, these ar Preserve Life. prevent the groom from worsenedning.Promote reco really.Sometimes first aid is all that is necessary- for instance, communal small-scale injuries such as grazes great deal be ploughed sufficiently. However, it is consequential to understand when checkup military serviceer is entreatd pressingly. Whenever you be relations with an slash, incident or illness you must stay stabilize. You should reas reliable casualties, and sisterren who be bystanders, as they whitethorn be frightened. You should en real that you and others be non put at u nnecessary risk. Think through your actions carefully and profit safety your priority. Major gos are often associated with other injuries and priorities must be set in each diligent. Control of inhering concealed haemorrhage, for example, from a ruptured spleen, teachs precedence all over fracture management. It is, however, important in disadvantageously injured perseverings that open fractures are managed as beforehand(predicate) as possible. The advantages of this greet ac agnizeledge diminished risk of infection, reduction in botheration, early ability to sit sound with improved respiratory function, trim down proceed melody dismission, and improved healing of soft tissue injuries and a reduced incidence of fat embolism. sign assessment.Primary survey- the ABCDEs of the primary survey should be assessed. Haemorrhage from a musculoskeletal impairment should be identified and controlled with direct oblige. It is important to recognise that signifi thronet amoun ts of rail line whitethorn be lost from fractures of the pelvis or femur and haemodynamic instability from hypovolemia may be present. Physical examination is carried out patch resuscitation is in progress in hypovolemic patients. Clothing is cut indigent and the patient is examined for fractures andfor evidence of internal haemorrhage. The fol economic crisising are important adjuncts to the primary survey and resuscitation Fracture reduction and immobilisation need splinting of fractures testament minimise soft tissue stultification, reduce line of merchandise loss, control pain and prevent conversion of a c lackd fracture to an open fracture. Temporary traction devices may be manipulationd to support comforting alignment. It is important to examine the injured limb for signs of vascular and pith injury, as considerably as clear-cut for a fracture or dislocation. The fractured limb should be handled as gently as possible if near realignment is necessary in l ocate to apply a padded standard or improvised splint.Splinting should pin the joints supra and below the fracture excessively. The open wound compound fracture should be spark offly surmounting blow with a clean or sterile dressing. Bone protruding from the wound should be left undisturbed. Analgesia. Although splinting greatly assists pain control, the arrest services may administer an intravenous nar cotic analgesia. Resuscitation- up to four litres of lineage may be lost with severe fractures of the pelvis or femur. Adequate resuscitation before internal fixation is particularly important in such patients, who may lose 50% or more of their air volume, either externally (with open injuries) or into the tissues of the t elevated and pelvis. One or two litres of blood distributed as throughout the soft tissues of the t mellow get out outgrowth the external diameter by a innocent 1-2cm patients with multiple pelvic and other fractures female genitalia require replacem ent or tip overably more than their blood volume.Secondary survey- during the secondary survey a foc engagementd history and examination are performed, including a neurological assessment. History taking should incorporate ample and the following points should be considered circumstances of the accident, and history of crushing accidental injury or explosive forces. If the patient has been involved in a motor vehicle accident. Physical examination and neurological assessment. Signs of fracture are local anaesthetic loss of function, bony tenderness, swelling, deformity, bruising and cling toive muscle spasm. scrutiny for abnormal walk outment and crepitus is unnecessarily painful and contraindicated. An obvious fracture may often distract upkeep from a less obvious injury. For example, dislocation of the hip may coexist with an obvious fem viva rip dispatch fracture ( almosttimes the real exploit of persistent shock) a spinal fracture with afracture of the cal merchant shi peus. visceral injuries such as splenic rupture are seen with fractured ribs urethral or bladder injuries with a fractured pelvis. The quizzer should check peripheral urges and evidence of limb ischemia beyond a fracture-such a complication requires urgent correction.The most common vascular injuries are at the knee joint and elbow-to the popliteal vessels after severe knee injury in baberen and to the brachial artery following supracondylar fracture. Neurological examination is also crucial loss of motor power in whatsoever muscle group or loss of whatsoever cutaneous sensation indicates nerve injury. If the patient can flex and extend the toes and ankle, the major nerves of the lower penis are intact if the fingers can be spread and flexed and the thumb can be extended, functional ace of the major nerves of the upper limb is present. Common nerve injuries following fractures are the radial nerve from fracture of the mid-humerus, the peroneal nerve from proximal fibular fracture and knee injuries, and the ulnar nerve from fracture of the wellness check epicondyle of the humerus. Sciatic and axillary nerve injuries must al ways be excluded after dislocation of the hip or shoulder. Careful attention to the details of local handling is most important. Fractures heal promptly with correct local manipulation. Children are constantly bumping and bruising themselves. All it takes is one fall as well as hard, and the churl might safe end up with a broken bone. One out of five people has had a fracture at nearly point in time, and the maximum of these fractures eliminate during squirthood. How can you tell if its a fracture or a bend? The pains is less intensive in a sprain than in a fracture, but never make a mistake of netherestimating mortals pain threshold.A dislocation is when the bone has come out from the socket. This also expirys in acute pain, swelling, an inability to carry any weight and an inability to fit the injured limb. A hairlin e fracture is just when the bone gets a crack that goes through it. Such fractures still exercise immense pain, but at least the chances of needing an feat are slim. A compound fracture is one in which the bone completely breaks apart pops out through the jumble. This is the worst kind and it may return in loss of blood as well. The first step to be taken is to immobilise the limb.it should non be moved at all. Leg fracture- if a child has a suspected fractured wooden leg, carefully straighten it. foresee for emergency services and in the meantime, safe(p) the leg so it doesnt move. Apply two splints, one onthe inner leg from the tail to inner thigh, and the other on the outside, from the foot to the armpit. Secure the splints well. Do not move the child until their leg has been completely immobilised. You could tie both legs together for added support. Hand fracture- the hand should be moved to a 90 degree angle and kept close to the chest. It should be immobilised in thi s emplacement, and if the pain is too intense, do not move it at all.To swear out maintain the patch place the injured arm into a sling. Bleeding- if a child is bleed, you should treat the bleeding first. Stop the bleeding by first cleaning it with sterile weewee and past apply a sterile clean dressing. Keep RICE in mind, as a first aid treatment for all fractures, sprains and dislocations Rest- Give plenty of rest to the immobilised limb. Move it as little(a) as possible so that there is no strain. Ice- Apply ice to the injured area. No heat energy treatment or massage should be selectn. Use an ice pack or wrap whatsoever ice cubes in a damp towel and apply it to the injured area. You could also use anything icy such as a packet of frozen peas. Compression- Wrap up the injured area with a large crepe bandage if possible, or use any clean, fresh cloth in stock(predicate). Wrap it as tight as is comfortable. However ask the patient dont assume how tight it is. This will r e duplicityve pain fewwhat. Elevation- The injured limb should preferably be raised above the aim of the heart. This could be done using something like a pillow. During any first aid treatment it is vital that the patient is reassured and is made as comfortable as possible and that you stay as calm as possible to keep the situation and patient calm, do not delay seeking health check checkup assistance and ensure the patient mud nil by mouth in case surgery or anaesthesia is needed as this will delay things.Head injuries occur commonly in child hood and adolescence. nearly psyche injuries are delicate and not associated with mind injury or coarse term complications. A head injury is any trauma that injures the scalp, skull, or headway. The injury may be only a minor bump on the skull or a serious brain injury. A closed head injury means you received a hard blow to the head from prominent an heading, but the object did not break the skull. An open, or get in, head injury means you were hit with an object that broke the skull and go intoed the brain. This unremarkably happens when you move at high speed. Symptoms of a head injury can occur right forward, or develop slowly over several hours or days. Even if the skull is not fractured, the brain can bang against the inside ofthe skull and be bruised. The head may look fine, but problems could result from bleeding or swelling inside the skull. In any serious head trauma, the spinal cord is also likely to be injured. Some head injuries exercise changes in brain function. This is look fored a traumatic brain injury. Learning to recognise a serious head injury and give basic first aid can save mortals life. Get medical help spryly if the soulfulnessBecomes precise sleepy.Be reachs abnormally.Develops a severe headache or stiff neck.Has pupils of unequal size.Is unable to move an arm or leg.Loses consciousness, even briefly.Vomits more than once.Concussion-the term concussion is used to describe a mild form of traumatic brain injury. Concussion take ons confusion, amnesia, headache, vomiting and dizziness. Seizures.The signs and symptoms of a skull fracture areA cut, bruise, or swelling on their head. There may also be bruising around their tickers and behind their ears. Blood or clear influenzaid coming out from their head, ear or nose. Bump or hump on their head.Dizziness, feeling tired.Pain or tenderness on their head.Very bad headache.Cerebral undertakeion is precise serious and almost invariably requires surgery. Cerebral compression occurs when there is a build-up of pressure on the brain. This pressure may be due to one of several different groundss, such as an accumulation of blood within the skull or swelling of injured brain tissues. Cerebral compression is usually caused by a head injury. However, it can also be due to other causes, such as shooting, infection or a brain tumour. The condition may develop conterminously after a head injury, or it may app ear a few hours or even days later. Recognising cerebral compressionDeteriorating level of response.History of a recent head injury.Intense headache.Noisy breathing, becoming slow.Slow, yet full and cockeyed pulse.Unequal pupil size.Weakness/paralysis down one side.High temperature.Drowsiness.Abnormal behaviour.You should always consider the possibility of cervical spine injury in cases of head injuries. There are two types of injury. normal cervical hyperextension injuries occur in drivers/passengers of a statutory or slow-moving vehicle that is struck from behind. The psyches consistence is thrown forward but the head lags, resulting in hyperextension of the neck. When the head and neck accept reached maximum extension the neck then snaps into flexion. A rapid deceleration throws the head forwards and flexes the cervical spine. The chin limits forward flexion but the forward movement may be sufficient to cause hankeritudinal distraction and neurological damage. Hyperextensio n may occur in the subsequent recoil. The symptoms entangleNeck pain, chew the fat pain, para spinal muscle tightness and spasms. Interscapular and low back pain.Reduced range of movements and neck tenderness.Headache, dizziness, vertigo, blurring of vision. unemotionality in shoulders and arms.Swelling.Insomnia, anxiety.Leg weakness.Arm weakness.Other possible cause of acute neck pain and rigourousness caused by head injury include Spinal fracture.Cervical disc herniation.Subarachnoid haemorrhage.Cervical spondylosis.The primary object in the early management of a severely injured patient is theprovision of sufficient oxygen to the tissues to avoid organ failure and secondary central nervous system damage. The first priority is to embed and maintain a patients flight path. With the addition of high-concentration oxygen and the presence of adequate tissue perfusion, this will enable sufficient spontaneous breathing or assisted ventilation to oxygenate the patient. The possibi lity of an fallacious cervical injury exists in patients learnd to significant blunt trauma during airway interventions neck movements must be minimised to avoid secondary detriment to the spinal cord. Head injury with impaired consciousness and reduced pharyngeal tone is the commonest trauma- link cause of airway obstruction. The airway may also be soiled with blood or regurgitated matter. Blunt or penetrating injuries that obstruct the airway include maxillary, mandibular and laryngotracheal fractures, and the large introductory neck haematomas. Significant partial and incipient airway obstruction are also potential causes of early death.Vigilant reassessment with immediate restoration and valueion of airway patency is essential. Having ensured scene safety, the initial approach to the trauma dupe take downs with an assessment of the patency of the airway and if indicated manual in line stabilisation (MILS) of the cervical spine. In unconsciousness patients, the head and nec k should be maintained in neutral alignment. MILS may be replaced with a correctly sized hard cervical collar, lateral blocks and straps across the forehead and chin flip of the collar. Spinal immobilisation prohibits head tilt. A jaw cast off may be more powerful in relieving airway obstruction with decreased consciousness than a chin lift. However, a jaw thrust can cause significant movement of an unstable cervical spine. If tolerated an oropharyngeal airway may maintain airway patency while exerting less force on the vertebrae. Subsequently assisted ventilation may be more successful if separate rescuers apply the jaw thrust, hold the face mask and begin resuscitation.Any material such as dust, sand or paint that gets into the eye is called a overseas dead body. Foreign bodies fall into two categories seeming(prenominal)- these stick to the front of the eye or get trapped under one of the eyelids, but do not enter the eye. Penetrating- these while outside(a) the outer laye r of the eye and enter the eye. These objects are usually travelling at high speed and are commonly made of metal. Superficial orthogonal bodies are not usuallyserious.A penetrating eye injury can be extremely serious-it may lead to blindness in not detected and treated promptly. If you get a superficial body in your eye, first aid treatment in the form of a lenify rinsing with sterile body of water is appropriate it is easier to tilt the head or lie down and sponge the eye from the side. It is vital to keep the child calm and reassure them throughout. If a child has a penetrating eye injury you must seek urgent medical assistance remembering to keep calm and reassure the child.Foreign bodies in the ear can either be in the lobe or in the ear canal. Objects usually found in the ear lobe are earrings, either stuck in the lobe from infection or placed too deep during insertion. Foreign bodies in the ear canal can be anything a child can push into their ear. The reason children pla ce things in their ears is usually because they are bored, curious or copying other children. Sometimes, one child may put an object in another childs ear during play. Insects may also fly into the ear canal, causing potential harm. The treatment for foreign bodies in the ear is prompt removal of the object. In the case of the foreign body being an bird louse you can use halfhearted water in any other case it is important that educate professionals annihilate the items to prevent any further damage occuring. The techniques they may use include Instruments may be inserted to retrieve it.Magnets in the case of metal objects.Cleaning the ear canal with water.A machine with sucking to help pull the object out.After removal of the object the ear will be re-examined to find out whether there is any injury to the ear canal. Antibiotic drops may be prescribed to treat any possible infection. Medical help should be sought if treatment is unsuccessful and to ensure all materials are remov ed. The most common symptom of a foreign body in the nose is nasal discharge. The drainpipe appears only on one side of the nose and often has a bad odour. In some cases, the child may also lay down a bloody nose. The treatment for this involves prompt removal by a medical professional. They may find ifnecessary to sedate a child in order to remove the object successfully. Again the doctor may prescribe nose drops or antibiotic treatment. Whilst hold for medical assistance it is vital to abet the child to take place through their mouth.Corneal abrasions- are a scratch or injury to the cornea, the clear, dome- frame of referenced surface that covers the front of the eye. There are many things that can cause an abrasion to the cornea. When objects make contact with the surface of the eye, a small abrasion can occur. Chemical burn- occurs when a child gets any type of chemical in their eye. Chemical burn down are a medical emergency. They can result in a loss of vision and even a loss of the eye itself. Household cleaning agents are a common cause of this type of injury. Bruising or dis warp eye- usually occurs from some type of injury to the eye, causing the tissue around the eye to pass bruised. Fractures to the surface area- the orbit is the bony structure around the eye. When one or more bones surrounding the eye are broken. An orbital fracture usually occurs after some type of injury or strike to the face. chapeau lacerations- are cuts to the eyelids caused by injury.General symptoms of eye injuries can includeBlood in the eyeball.Changes in the shape of the iris or pupil.Eye pain.The absence of obvious symptoms.When checking eyes for injury it is important to wear gloves and any cuts should be cleaned with sterile water to prevent infection, always wash give before and after examining a patient. Check the patients vision. Within the setting the most common eye injury is caused by things such as sand this can be dealt with by a trained first aider on site. However other injuries will more than likely need medical assistance.Sickle Cell Anaemia.Symptoms vary, ranging from mild to severe, and may be less severe, or different in children who train inherited a reap hook cell gene from one parent and a different abnormal haemoglobin gene from the other. Most children withsickle cell disease have some degree of anaemia and might develop one or more of the following conditions and symptoms as part of the disorder Acute chest syndrome.Aplastic crisis.Hand-foot syndrome.Infections.Painful crisis. bristly sequestration crisis.Stroke.Bone marrow transplant is the only known cure for sickle cell disease. only when even without a cure, children with sickle cell can lead relatively normal lives. Medicines are getable to help manage the pain and immunisations and daily doses of penicillin can help prevent infection. Most children will require two doses of penicillin, as prescribed by their GP, if attending a setting a nominated exclusi ve will be responsible for the administration of this medication. It is vital to seek emergency attention if the child develops febrility of 101 F or higher.Chest painsPain that isnt relieved by oral medication.Shortness of breath or trouble breathing.Extreme fatigue.Severe headache or dizziness.Severe put forward pain or swelling.Jaundice or nauseousness.Sudden change of vision.Seizures.Weakness.Slurring.Loss of consciousness.Numbness or tingling. suppose to reassure the child, you should encourage the child to drink plenty of fluids, rest regularly and avoid temperatures.Diabetes.Regular test of blood glucose levels is a very important part of diabetes care. Te cleave is done by taking a drop of blood, usually from a finger, and placing it on a special test strip in a glucose meter. Caregivers must practice universal precautions when handling and disposing of te stay equipment. Hyperglycaemia, or high blood sugar, occurs with both types of diabetes. It occurs when the body ge ts too little insulin, too much nutriment, too little exercise or with illness. Stress from a frigid, sore throat, or other illness may increase the level of blood glucose. Symptoms include rat irritation, excessive thirst, extreme hunger, unusual weightless, irritability and poor sleep, nausea and vomiting, and weakness and blurred vision.Hypoglycaemia, or low blood sugar, is more common in people with type 1 diabetes. It is the most common immediate health problem and is also called insulin reaction or insulin shock. It occurs when the body gets too much insulin, too little food, a delayed meal or more than the usual amount of exercise. Symptoms include hunger, changes in mood or behaviour, sweating, and rapid pulse. Treatment commonly involves quickly restoring glucose levels to normal with a sugary food or drink such as orange juice, candy, biscuits or glucose tablets. If not treated properly, it can result in loss of consciousness and a life-threatening coma. Glucagon inject ions are used in life-threatening situations to increase blood glucose. First aid for a diabetic come are as followedCall emergency services. take upt interpret to give them food or fluids as they may choke.Place them into the recuperation position to prevent any obstruction to breathing. Follow any instructions given to you by the emergency services operator until paramedics arrive.Asthma.In an asthma attack the muscles of the air passages in the lungs go into spasm and the linings of the airways swell. As a result, the airways become narrowed and breathing becomes difficult. Sometimes there is a specific trigger for an asthma attack such as an allergya cuttingcigarette wadextremes of temperatureexercise.Recognition features problem in breathing, with a very prolonged breathing-out phase. There may also bewheezing as the fatal accident breathes outdifficulty speaking and whisperingdistress and anxiety spit upfeatures of hypoxia, such as a grey-blue tinge to the lips, earlobes a nd nail beds (cyanosis).Severities of attacks are frightening for the child concerned and can also by frightening for those children who may be witnessing it. The child wheezes and becomes breathless. Prompt action is needed. Reassure the child. Give bronchodilator inhaler as instructed if the child is a known asthmatic. These inhalers should always be immediately available- they deliver medication to the lungs to relieve the unnatural airways. Children may also have another type of inhaler used to prevent attacks. Make sure you know which to use in an emergency, particularly if older children generally use their inhalers themselves. Sit child upright and leaning forwards in a comfortable position. Stay with them. If this is the first attack or the condition persists call for an ambulance remember to note changes in the childs face and lips (colour) and all breathing difficulties and spoken communication to pass onto paramedics. Ensure there is adequate ventilation and encourage t he child to breathe deeply and slowly.Meningitis.Meningitis should be treated as a medical emergency because bacterial meningitis can lead to septicaemia which can be fatal. Bacterial meningitis is the more serious form of the condition. The symptoms usually begin suddenly and rapidly get worse. Emergency services should be contactedimmediately if it is suspected. Bacterial meningitis has a lean of early warning signs that usually occur before other symptoms. These are Pain in the muscles, joints or limbs.Unusually cold pass on and feet.Pale or blotchy trim and blue lips.The presence of a high temperature with any of the above symptoms should be taken very seriously and emergency services should be called. Early symptoms are analogous to those of many other conditions, and include A severe headache.Fever.Nausea.Vomiting.Feeling generally unwell.As the condition gets worse it may causeDrowsiness.Confusion.Seizures or fits.Being unable to tolerate bright light.A stiff neck.A rapid breathing rate.A blotchy rash that does not fade or change colour when you place a glass against it. Viral meningitis- most people will experience mild flu like symptoms. When examining a child with suspected meningitis it is vital to wash hands and wear individualal, protective, equipment such as disposable aprons, and gloves to reduce the risk of cross infection, ensure you reassure and dont panic the child at any stage. It is important to inform senior staff or management of the case so they can contact and inform others where necessary.Febrile convulsions.Febrile convulsions maybe due to epilepsy, or a high temperature. Violent muscle twitching, clenched fists, arched back, may lead to unconsciousness. Do not try to fix the child. Instead clear the immediate area andsurround the child with pillows or padding for protection. Cool the environs and the child gradually (as for a temperature), sponging skin if necessary. When raptuss diaphragm place the child in the convalescen ce position and reassure. Dial 999. Remember to prevent choking ensure the mouth is clear drain any fluids, puff the chin and jaw forward if breathing is bear on.Epilepsy.It is vital to remain calm when dealing with seizures as a persons response to seizures can influence how other people act. If the first person remains calm, it will help others stay calm too. Talking calmly and reassuring the patient during and after the seizure- it will help them as they recover from the seizure. Dont be afraid. Stay calm. The person will be ok.Do not try to stop the person from shaking. If the patient is walking, gently guide them away from sober places like stairs. Call emergency services and tell them clearly what is happening and you need an ambulance. To make sure they dont get hurt, move anything sharp.Place something soft under the patients head, loosen tight clothing, and remove jewellery and glasses. Do not put anything in the patients mouth.If you can, check a time to see what time the seizure begun and the time the shaking stops or the person wakes up. one time the seizure has ended place them in the recovery position to stop them from choking and causing any harm to themselves. Never leave the patient wait until medical help is there and remember to speak in a quiet voice to reassure the patient. You should never restrain someone having a seizure. Just protect the person form injury, as restrains them, can cause more harm, and remember putting someone into the recovery position after a seizure can stop them from swallowing their own tongue which could lead to death.Hypothermia.Hypothermia happens when a persons body temperature drops below 35C (95F). Normal body temperature is around 37C (98.6F). Hypothermia can quickly become life threatening and should be treated as a medical emergency. Its usually caused by being in a cold environment and can be triggered by acombination of things such as being outdoors in cold conditions for a long time, living in a po orly heated house or dropping into cold water. The signs of hypothermia vary depending on how low a persons temperature has dropped. Initial symptoms include shivering, tiredness, debauched breathing and cold or pale skin. As the temperature drops, shivering becomes more violent (although this will stop completely if the hypothermia worsens further), the person is likely to become delirious, and struggle to breathe or move and they may lose consciousness. Babies with hypothermia may look healthy but their skin will feel cold. They may also be limp, unusually quiet and refuse to turn over. You should seek immediate medical help if you suspect someone has hypothermia. If someone you know has been exposed to the cold and they are distressed, confused, have slow, shallow breathing or theyre unconscious, they may have severe hypothermia. In this case, dial 999 immediately to request an ambulance. While waiting for medical help, it is important to try to prevent further heat loss and ge ntly warm the person. You should Move the person inside or somewhere warm as soon as possible. Once they are somewhere warm, carefully remove any wet clothing and dry the person. Wrap them in blankets, towels or coats.If the person is unconscious, not breathing and you cant detect a pulse in their neck after 60 seconds, cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should be given if you know how to do it. Once CPR is started, it should be continued without any breaks until medical assistance arrives. There are several things you can do to prevent hypothermia. Simple measures can help, such as wearing appropriate warm clothing in cold weather and ensuring that children are well wrapped up when they go outside.Hyperthermia.Hyperthermia is the general name given to a variety of heat-related illnesses. loosen up weather and outdoor activity go hand in hand. However, it is important for older people to take action to avoid the severe health problems often caused by hot weather. The two most com mon forms of hyperthermia are heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Of the two, heat stroke is especially dangerous and requires immediate medical attention. hot pants stress occurs when a strain is placed on the body as a result of hotweather. waken fatigue is a feeling of weakness brought on by high outdoor temperature. Symptoms include change, moist skin and a weakened pulse. The person many feel faint. Heat syncope is a sudden dizziness experienced after exercising in the heat. The skin appears pale and sweaty but is generally moist and cool. The pulse is weakened and the heart rate is usually rapid. Body temperature is normal.Heat cramps are painful muscle spasms in the abdomen, arms or legs following strenuous activity. Heat cramps are caused by a lack of salt in the body. Heat exhaustion is a warning that the body is getting too hot. The person may be thirsty, giddy, weak, uncoordinated, nauseated and sweating profusely. The body temperature is normal and the pulse is normal or raised. The skin is cold and clammy. Heat stroke can be life-threatening and victims can die. A person with heat stroke usually has a body temperature above 104 degrees Fahrenheit. Other symptoms include confusion, combativeness, bizarre behaviour, faintness, staggering, strong and rapid pulse, and possible delirium or coma. High body temperature is capable of producing irreversible brain damage.If the child is exhibiting signs of heat stroke, emergency assistance should be sought immediately. Without medical attention, heat stroke can be deadly. Heat exhaustion may be treated in several waysget the victim out of the sun into a cool place, preferably one that is air knowing offer fluids but avoid alcohol and caffeine water and fruit juices are best encourage the individual to shower and bathe, or sponge off with cool water urge the person to lie down and rest, preferably in a cool place to prevent injury if the casualty does faint. outride calm and reassure the child.Electric Sh ock.The human body conducts electricity very well. That means electricity passes very easily throughout the body. train contact with electrical real can be deadly. While some electrical destroy look minor, there still may be serious internal damage, especially to the heart, muscles, or brain. Electric new can cause injury in three wayscardiac arrest due to the electrical effect on the heartMuscle, nerve, and tissue destruction from a current passing through the body Thermal fire from contact with the electrical source1. If you can do so safely, troll off the electrical current. Unplug the cord, remove the fuse from the fuse box, or turn off the circuit breakers. Simply turning off an appliance may NOT stop the rate of flow of electricity. Do NOT attempt to rescue a person near active high-voltage lines.2. Call your local emergency number, such as 911.3. If the current cant be turned off, use a non-conducting object, such as a broom, chair, rug, or runber doormat to push the person away from the source of the current. Do not use a wet or metal object. If possible, stand on something dry and that doesnt conduct electricity, such as a rubber mat or folded newspapers.4. Once the person is away from the source of electricity, check the persons airway, breathing, and pulse. If either has stopped or seems hazardously slow or shallow, start first aid. (See CPR)5. If the person has a burn, remove any clothing that comes off easily, and rinse the burned-out area in cool running water until the pain subsides. Give first aid for fire.6. If the person is faint, pale, or shows other signs of shock, lay him or her down, with the head slightly lower than the organic structure of the body and the legs elevated, and cover him or her with a warm blanket or a coat.7. Stay with the person until medical help arrives.8. Electrical injury is frequently associated with explosions or falls that can cause additional severe injuries. You may not be able to notice all of them . Do not move the persons head or neck if the spine may be injured.Stay at least 20 feet away from a person who is being electrocuted by high-voltage electrical current (such as power lines) until the power is turned off. Do NOT touch the person with your bare hands if they are still in contact with the source of electricity Do NOT apply ice, butter, ointments, medications, flossy cotton dressings, or adhesive bandages to a burn Do NOT remove dead skin or break blisters if the person has been burned After the power is shut off, do NOT move the person unless there is a risk of fire or explosionBurns and Scalds.Superficial burnsSuperficial burns only affect the surface of your skin (epidermis). Your skin will be red and painful, but not blistered. Mild sunburn is an example of a superficial burn. Partial-thickness burnsPartial-thickness burns are deeper burns that damage your epidermis and dermis to varying degrees. If the damage to your dermis is shallow, your skin may be pale pink and painful, with blisters. Deeper burns to your dermis will cause your skin to become dry or moist, blotchy and red. Deep partial-thickness burns may or may not be painful and they may blister. Full-thickness burnsAll layers of your skin are damaged by full-thickness burns. Your skin will look white, dark- chocolate-brown or black and dry, leathery or waxy. Because the nerves in your skin are destroyed with full-thickness burns, you wont feel any pain or have blisters.Symptoms vary depending on the severity of your burn. They include changes in your skin colour burns can cause your skin to look pink, red, white, brown or black blisterspain in the burnt areaSymptoms of a burn to your airway includeburned nostril hairsa change in your voice (it may sound hoarse)a sore throatwheezingTreatment for burns depends on their severity. You can treat superficial and minor partial-thickness burns that are caused by heat yourself at home. However, seek urgent medical help from your GP or an a ccident and emergency department in a hospital for all deep partial-thickness and full-thickness burnsall chemical and electrical burnssuperficial and partial-thickness burns that cover an area larger than thepalm of your hand burns that cover a joint or are on your face, hands, feet or groin all burns that extend completely around a limball burns where you may have inhaled smokeAlso seek medical help for advice if youre not sure about the extent of a burn or how to deal with it. For burns caused by chemicals, if possible look at the advice on the enunciate of the chemical product. For full-thickness burns or burns that are caused by chemicals or electricity, its important that you start cooling the burn immediately under cool or tepid water (unless instructed otherwise on the chemical product) and then call for emergency help. While youre waiting, there are a number of important things you can do. For burns caused by heat, keep cooling the burn with cool or tepid water for between 10 and 30 minutes or until medical help is available. Dont use iced water. Carefully remove any restrictive clothing or jewellery that isnt stuck to the burn. Next, cover the burn using cling film layer this on to the burn rather than wrapping it around a limb, for example. If you have a burn on your hand, use a clean, clear plastic bag. Dont use wet dressings or creams. For burns caused by chemicals, keep cooling the burn with cool or tepid water for at least 20 minutes and remove any affect clothing (wear gloves if possible). Dont try to neutralise the chemical with another chemical.Facial Burns.Facial burns will need to be treated differently depending on the degree of the burn. First-degree burns only cluck into the epidermis and cause redness and swelling. Second-degree burns penetrate the hypodermis and cause redness, blotching, and blistering. Third degree burns penetrate all layers of skin and cause areas of blackening. A third-degree burn needs to be treated with emerge ncy medical care. Treatment for a minor facial burn would include holding a cold compress to the burn for 10 to 15 minutes. After cooling, lotion should be applied. Cover with a sterile netting bandage. Dont pop blisters and if they pop on their own, wash them gently with soap and water, and apply an antibiotic ointment under the sterile gauze.If the patient has been accidentally exposed to fire or heated gases, damagemay occur to the mouth and airway. There may be signs of burning around the lips, nose, mouth, eyebrows or lashes. A dry cough or hoarse voice is an early sign of airway injury and prompt medical care is essential. How you can help1. Remove the patient to a safe areaIf in a closed area, and if safe for the first aider, it is vital to remove the patient to a place free of the risk of further injury and preferably into fresh air. 2. Cool the injuryIf smoke or hepatotoxic gases may have been inhaled including carbon monoxide from a vehicle exhaust, chlorine, ammonia or hydrochloric acid remove the patient from any enclosed or restricted area into an open area pour running water over the burn for 20 minutes. If there is any breathing difficulties allow the patient to find the position enabling easy breathing with the head and chest raised. After an inhalation incident the patient may suffer from a severe lack of oxygen due to internal damage to the throat, upper airway and lungs. Call 999 for an ambulance.Poisoning.Poisoning is when a person is exposed to a substance that can damage their health or put their life in danger. There are many ways in which poison can enter the bodyThrough the mouth.Breathing them through the nose.Through your eyes.Through skin contact.From an worm or animal bite or sting.The symptoms of poisoning will depend on the type of poison and the amount taken in, the age and weight and size of the individual, but general things to look out for include vomitingstomach painshigh temperaturedrowsiness and fainting fitsDizzines s, weakness.Fever or chills.Headache/confusion.If a child suddenly develops such symptoms, they may have been poisoned, especially if they are drowsy and confused. Being poisoned can be life-threatening. Giving appropriate first aid, as described below, can help minimise the harm to the person who is poisoned. For simplicity, we have referred to the person (casualty) in the male gender throughout. First, assess the situation and the risk youre in dont put yourself in danger. If you call up someone has swallowed, injected or inhaled a poison, or taken a drug overdose and appears to be unconscious, try to rouse him. If the person responds, you shouldnt move him. Instead, try to find out whats wrong, make sure his airway is open and that he can breathe comfortably and you can monitor his condition. Call for emergency help or preferably get someone to call for you. If he is unresponsive, you should first shout for help and then open the airway by tilting his head back and lifting his chin. If its possible to leave him in the same position to open his airway then do so. However, if it isnt, turn him onto his back and then open his airway. Ask someone to phone for an ambulance, and if necessary the fire brigade. If youre on your own, you should do this yourself. Be ready to give as much of the following reading as you can to the paramedics and/or the doctor or nurse at the hospital. The name of what was swallowed injected or inhaled if you know it. If possible, keep the container and make a note of how much has been taken. The estimated time that the poison was taken or used.Whether or not the person has vomited.Whether you think it was accidental or deliberate.Whether the person has any chronic illnesses (e.g., heart disease) or takes any medicines (if you know). If the person is unconscious and breathing normally, you should put him into the recovery position. Check his breathing regularly until help arrives. If the person is unconscious and isnt breathing norm ally, you should perform emergency resuscitation (CPR), but only if you know how. If you think the poison was swallowed, use the mouth-to-nose method, or preferably, use a pocket mask or face casing for rescue breathing. This way, you avoid any contact with traces of poison or vomit that might remain around the persons mouth or nose. If you think theperson has inhaled poisonous fumes, dont expose yourself to the persons breath and use chest compressions only. You should continue at a rate of blow to 120 compressions per minute. Dont stop unless the person begins breathing normally, shows signs of regaining consciousness, such as coughing or their opening eyes, or qualified help arrives. If the person has pills, fluids or any substance in his mouth, try to get him to spit them out. You can give them to the hospital staff to help identify the cause of poisoning. Dont try to make the person sick as vomiting can cause even more damage. If the person has been sick, collect a sample of the vomit to take to hospital. This may help staff identify the poison.Everyone should learn basic first aid techniques. You never know when you might need them you could be at home, at work, at school or on holiday. Whether its a minor situation or something more serious, first aid knowledge will give you the confidence to act. You could be the difference between life and death. Deal with every day cuts and scrapes and nosebleeds.First aid advice is also available for asthma, fractures, sunburn, poisons, low blood sugar and more. Heart and circulatory disease is the UKs biggest killer. Learn how to recognise and treat heart attacks and shock. You can purchase a number of first aid books/manuals which will help and give you knowledge on how to deal with first aid emergencies, some of these manuals areThe most common first aid manuals which people will recognise are those from the British Red Cross, or St Johns Ambulance as these are well known UK organisations.The National Poisons Information Service is the service to which frontline NHS staff turn for advice on the diagnosis, treatment and care of patients who have been or may have been poisoned, either by accident or intentionally. NPIS provides essential support for NHS healthcare professionals, assisting them in ensuring optimal care for patients in cases of serious poisoning, and, where toxicity is low, offering advice to minimise unnecessary hospital attendances and admissions. NPIS is funded mainly through Government Grant in Aid from the UK Health Departments, some contract income and some research income. In an emergency, members of the public should always contact their general practitioners, NHS 24 or NHS Direct or local A&E department. If the patient has collapsed or is not breathing properly, call 999. The NPIS does not provide poisons information directly to members of the public so, for routine poisons advice you should contact your general practitioner or telephone NHS Direct The National P oisons Information Service does not accept enquiries from the public but supports NHS Direct and NHS 24 to answer such queries.If you suspect Carbon Monoxide poisoning or a gas efflux you must leave the affected area immediately and report it as a matter of extremity to the National Grid on 0800 111 999.Pharmacies.Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that cerebrate the health sciences with the chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of pharmacy practice includes more traditional roles such as compounding and dispensing medications, and it also includes more modern services related to health care, including clinical services, reviewing medications for safety and efficacy, and providing drug information. Pharmacists, therefore, are the experts on drug therapy and are the primary health professionals who optimize use of medication for the benefit of the patients.Bites and Stings.Insect bites and stings are quite different attacks on our skin. Stings result when an insect is protecting itself when it feels threatened. Other than the initial pain of the attack, the sting can cause varying degrees of sensitised reaction. A bite is a deliberate attack by the insect in order to feed from our blood. After the initial bite, the insect injects its salivainto the wound to allow the blood to flow and for the insect to feed. A reaction to the insects saliva causes the bite to become red and swollen and to make it itch. There are many insects that live in the UK that bite or sting to feed or protect themselves. Stingers include wasps, bees, hornets and ants. Biters include mosquitoes, midges, sand flies, horse flies and ticks. It is very rare to catch diseases from insect bites and stings in the UK but it is possible. For example if bitten by a tick when walking in handle where deer have been, the person may catch Lyme disease, a serious infection caused by bacteria (Borrelia burgdorferi) spread by ticks.Abroad, in places such as Africa, Asia and South America there are a number of diseases that can be caught through insect bites such as malaria, yellow fever, Dengue fever, and West Nile disease. When stung by an insect a baby or babe feels immediate pain, causing her or him to cry. You will recognise this cry as being different from crying associated with hunger or tiredness and should check the child to find the cause. Look at exposed areas of skin, if the baby or infant has been stung, the area around the sting will swell and redden, later it may blister and produce an itchy rash. If the baby or infant has been bitten it may take several minutes for the bite to become itchy and swell into a lump or redden. In the case of midges when they attack in swarms there may be several areas where they have successfully attacked. These areas become hot and itchy and can remain so for several days.Some children are particu larly sensitive to insect bites and stings and will suffer a severe allergic reaction resulting in dizziness, fainting, breathing difficulties, rash, raised pulse, sickness, or a swollen mouth and face. In very severe cases the victim may even collapse and die. This severe reaction is called anaphylactic shock. There are precautions you can take to avoid a baby or infant being stung or bitten by insects. Stings in the mouth or on the face and hands commonly occur in babies and infants when wasps, attracted by the dulcet smell of drinks, ice cream, lollipops and sweets, are accidentally touched when eating or drinking. Keep an eye on children when eating or drinking outdoors, if you see a wasp on or near a child, dont aggravate the insect by flapping around, react calmly and simply wash it away. If you are being bitten by insects when outdoors, itis likely that the children are being bitten too.Be aware of this and try to cover as much of the childs skin as possible with long trous ers and tops with long sleeves. If in a pram or buggy, use an insect net to protect children particularly if she or he is asleep. Avoid areas such as ponds where mosquitoes, midges and horse flies commonly occur. When travelling abroad, cover the cot with a mosquito net, close all doors and windows at night and spray rooms with an insecticide or use electric vapour producing mosquito killers. Insect repellents containing low concentrations of DEET or icaridin can be used on infants over 2 years of age. They should not be used on babies in case the ingredients come in contact with their eyes or lips. Even when applied correctly, it is possible that a baby will rub its eyes or suck its fingers, allowing the repellents to be absorbed.If an infant has been playing or walking in fields where deer may have been, inspect the childs legs and arms closely for ticks small brown spider-like insects attached to the skin. If present, get hold of the tick with a pair if tweezers and gently lift a way from the skin without twisting.As soon as you notice a child may have been stung by a bee, remove the sting and the venomous sac if it has been left in the skin. Do this by lolly it out, either with your fingernails or using something with a hard edge, such as a bank card. When removing the sting, be careful not to spread the venom further under their skin and do not pierce the venomous sac. Do not pinch the sting out with your fingers or a pair of tweezers because you may spread the venom. If a child has been stung, an adult should remove the sting. Wasps and hornets do not usually leave the sting behind, so could sting you again. If you have been stung and the wasp or hornet is still in the area, walk away calmly to avoid being stung again. Most insect bites and stings cause itching and swelling that usually clears up within several hours. Minor bites and stings can be treated bywashing the affected area with soap and waterplacing a cold compress (a flannel or cloth cooled w ith cold water) over the affected area to reduce swelling not scratching the area because it can become infected (keep childrens fingernails short and clean)See your GP ifthe redness and itching gets worse or does not clear up after a few days. If they have swelling or itching anyplace else on their body after being bitten or stung, or if they are wheezing or have difficulty swallowing, they will need emergency medical treatment. Call 999 immediately and ask for an ambulance. Throughout the treatment of this its vital to reassure and help keep the child calm.Remember in the event of injury or sudden illness, failure to provide first aid could result in a casualtys death.